The GFZ supports several low Earth orbiting satellites (LEOs) along with their ground segments. The space segments (satellites), consisting of satellite bus, subsystems and scientific payload, typically stay in orbit for five years, but may be operational for up to 15 years (e.g. GRACE). In contrast, the ground segments, such as data reception and tracking stations, calibration, data processing and distribution facilities, are permanent systems operated for several satellite missions.
Space Geodetic Techniques (1.1), Global Geomonitoring and Gravity Field (1.2), Remote Sensing and Geoinformatics (1.4), Geomagnetism (2.3)