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Dataset

Panta Rhei benchmark dataset: socio-hydrological data of paired events of floods and droughts

Cite as:

Kreibich, Heidi; Schröter, Kai; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Van Loon, Anne; Mazzoleni, Maurizio; Abeshu, Guta Wakbulcho; Agafonova, Svetlana; AghaKouchak, Amir; Aksoy, Hafzullah; Alvarez-Garreton, Camila; Aznar, Blanca; Balkhi, Laila; Barendrecht, Marlies H.; Biancamaria, Sylvain; Bos-Burgering, Liduin; Bradley, Chris; Budiyono, Yus; Buytaert, Wouter; Capewell, Lucinda; Carlson, Hayley; Cavus, Yonca; Couasnon, Anaïs; Coxon, Gemma; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; de Ruiter, Marleen C.; Delus, Claire; Erfurt, Mathilde; Esposito, Giuseppe; François, Didier; Frappart, Frédéric; Freer, Jim; Frolova, Natalia; Gain, Animesh K; Grillakis, Manolis; Grima, JordiOriol; Guzmán, Diego A.; Huning, Laurie S.; Ionita, Monica; Kharlamov, Maxim; Khoi, Dao Nguyen; Kieboom, Natalie; Kireeva, Maria; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Li, Hongyi; LLasat, Maria Carmen; Macdonald, David; Mård, Johanna; Mathew-Richards, Hannah; McKenzie, Andrew; Mejia, Alfonso; Mendiondo, Eduardo Mario; Mens, Marjolein; Mobini, Shifteh; Mohor, Guilherme Samprogna; Nagavciuc, Viorica; Ngo-Duc, Thanh; Nguyen, Huynh Thi Thao; Nhi, Pham Thi Thao; Petrucci, Olga; Quan, Nguyen Hong; Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Razavi, Saman; Ridolfi, Elena; Riegel, Jannik; Sadik, Md Shibly; Sairam, Nivedita; Savelli, Elisa; Sazonov, Alexey; Sharma, Sanjib; Sörensen, Johanna; Souza, Felipe Augusto Arguello; Stahl, Kerstin; Steinhausen, Max; Stoelzle, Michael; Szalińska, Wiwiana; Tang, Qiuhong; Tian, Fuqiang; Tokarczyk, Tamara; Tovar, Carolina; Tran, Thi Van Thu; van Huijgevoort, Marjolein H.J.; van Vliet, Michelle T.H.; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Wagener, Thorsten; Wang, Yueling; Wendt, Doris E.; Wickham, Elliot; Yang, Long; Zambrano-Bigiarini, Mauricio; Ward, Philip J. (2022): Panta Rhei benchmark dataset: socio-hydrological data of paired events of floods and droughts. GFZ Data Services. https://doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.4.4.2022.002

Status

I   N       R   E   V   I   E   W : Kreibich, Heidi; Schröter, Kai; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Van Loon, Anne; Mazzoleni, Maurizio; Abeshu, Guta Wakbulcho; Agafonova, Svetlana; AghaKouchak, Amir; Aksoy, Hafzullah; Alvarez-Garreton, Camila; Aznar, Blanca; Balkhi, Laila; Barendrecht, Marlies H.; Biancamaria, Sylvain; Bos-Burgering, Liduin; Bradley, Chris; Budiyono, Yus; Buytaert, Wouter; Capewell, Lucinda; Carlson, Hayley; Cavus, Yonca; Couasnon, Anaïs; Coxon, Gemma; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; de Ruiter, Marleen C.; Delus, Claire; Erfurt, Mathilde; Esposito, Giuseppe; François, Didier; Frappart, Frédéric; Freer, Jim; Frolova, Natalia; Gain, Animesh K; Grillakis, Manolis; Grima, JordiOriol; Guzmán, Diego A.; Huning, Laurie S.; Ionita, Monica; Kharlamov, Maxim; Khoi, Dao Nguyen; Kieboom, Natalie; Kireeva, Maria; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Li, Hongyi; LLasat, Maria Carmen; Macdonald, David; Mård, Johanna; Mathew-Richards, Hannah; McKenzie, Andrew; Mejia, Alfonso; Mendiondo, Eduardo Mario; Mens, Marjolein; Mobini, Shifteh; Mohor, Guilherme Samprogna; Nagavciuc, Viorica; Ngo-Duc, Thanh; Nguyen, Huynh Thi Thao; Nhi, Pham Thi Thao; Petrucci, Olga; Quan, Nguyen Hong; Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Razavi, Saman; Ridolfi, Elena; Riegel, Jannik; Sadik, Md Shibly; Sairam, Nivedita; Savelli, Elisa; Sazonov, Alexey; Sharma, Sanjib; Sörensen, Johanna; Souza, Felipe Augusto Arguello; Stahl, Kerstin; Steinhausen, Max; Stoelzle, Michael; Szalińska, Wiwiana; Tang, Qiuhong; Tian, Fuqiang; Tokarczyk, Tamara; Tovar, Carolina; Tran, Thi Van Thu; van Huijgevoort, Marjolein H.J.; van Vliet, Michelle T.H.; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Wagener, Thorsten; Wang, Yueling; Wendt, Doris E.; Wickham, Elliot; Yang, Long; Zambrano-Bigiarini, Mauricio; Ward, Philip J. (2022): Panta Rhei benchmark dataset: socio-hydrological data of paired events of floods and droughts. GFZ Data Services. https://doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.4.4.2022.002

Abstract

As the negative impacts of hydrological extremes increase in large parts of the world, a better understanding of the drivers of change in risk and impacts is essential for effective flood and drought risk management and climate adaptation. However, there is a lack of comprehensive, empirical data about the processes, interactions and feedbacks in complex human-water systems leading to flood and drought impacts. To fill this gap, we present an IAHS Panta Rhei benchmark dataset containing socio-hydrological data of paired events, i.e. two floods or two droughts that occurred in the same area (Kreibich et al. 2017, 2019). The contained 45 paired events occurred in 42 different study areas (in three study areas we have data on two paired events), which cover different socioeconomic and hydroclimatic contexts across all continents. The dataset is unique in covering floods and droughts, in the number of cases assessed and in the amount of qualitative and quantitative socio-hydrological data contained.

References to the data sources are provided in 2022-002_Kreibich-et-al_Key_data_table.xlsx where possible.

Based on templates, we collected detailed, review-style reports describing the event characteristics and processes in the case study areas, as well as various semi-quantitative data, categorised into management, hazard, exposure, vulnerability and impacts. Sources of the data were classified as follows: scientific study (peer-reviewed paper and PhD thesis), report (by governments, administrations, NGOs, research organisations, projects), own analysis by authors, based on a database (e.g. official statistics, monitoring data such as weather, discharge data, etc.), newspaper article, and expert judgement.

The campaign to collect the information and data on paired events started at the EGU General Assembly in April 2019 in Vienna and was continued with talks promoting the paired event data collection at various conferences. Communication with the Panta Rhei community and other flood and drought experts identified through snowballing techniques was important. Thus, data on paired events were provided by professionals with excellent local knowledge of the events and risk management practices.

Contact

  • Kreibich, Heidi (Head of WG Flood risk and climate adaptation) ; GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences;

Keywords

hydrological extremes, risk dynamics, human-flood system, human-drought system, socio-hydrology, risk management, flood, drought, environmental assessment > environmental risk assessment

GCMD Science Keywords

More Metadata

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          • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Section Hydrology, Potsdam, Germany
          • affiliation: Leichtweiss Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Division of Hydrology and River basin management, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany
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          • affiliation: Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science, Uppsala, Sweden
          • affiliation: Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden
          • affiliation: Department of Integrated Water Systems and Governance, IHE Delft, The Netherlands
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          • affiliation: University of California, Irvine, USA
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          • affiliation: Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
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          • affiliation: Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile
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          • affiliation: LEGOS, Université de Toulouse, CNES, CNRS, IRD, UPS, Toulouse, France
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          • affiliation: Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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          • affiliation: Cabot Institute, University of Bristol, UK
          • affiliation: University of Saskatchewan, Centre for Hydrology, Canmore, Alberta, Canada
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          • affiliation: Department of Economics, Ca' Foscari University of Venice, Italy
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          • affiliation: Pontificia Bolivariana University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Bucaramanga, Colombia
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          • affiliation: California State University, Long Beach, USA
          • affiliation: University of California, Irvine, USA
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          • affiliation: Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, Paleoclimate Dynamics Group, Bremerhaven, Germany
          • affiliation: Emil Racovita Institute of Speleology, Romanian Academy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
          • affiliation: Forest Biometrics Laboratory, Faculty of Forestry, Ștefan cel Mare University, Suceava, Romania
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          • affiliation: Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia
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          • affiliation: Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología del Perú SENAMHI, Lima, Peru
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          • affiliation: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, USA
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          • affiliation: Department of Applied Physics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
          • affiliation: Water Research Institute, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
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          • affiliation: British Geological Survey, Wallingford, UK
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          • affiliation: Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science, Uppsala, Sweden
          • affiliation: Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden
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          • affiliation: British Geological Survey, Wallingford, UK
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          • affiliation: Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, USA
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          • affiliation: University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil
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          • affiliation: Trelleborg municipality, Sweden
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          • affiliation: Forest Biometrics Laboratory, Faculty of Forestry, Ștefan cel Mare University, Suceava, Romania
          • affiliation: Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, Paleoclimate Dynamics Group, Bremerhaven, Germany
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          • affiliation: University of Science and Technology of Hanoi (USTH), Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam
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      • publicationYear: 2022
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        • subject: risk dynamics
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        • subject: human-drought system
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        • subject: risk management
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        • subject: drought
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        • subject (subjectScheme=NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords): EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES > DATA ANALYSIS AND VISUALIZATION
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        • relatedIdentifier (relatedIdentifierType=DOI relationType=Cites): 10.1002/2017EF000606
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              • citedResponsibleParty (xlink:href=http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6828-6963)
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • individualName
                    • CharacterString: Szalińska, Wiwiana
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: Institute of Meteorology and Water Management National Research Institute, Warszawa, Poland
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=author): author
              • citedResponsibleParty (xlink:href=http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0886-6699)
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • individualName
                    • CharacterString: Tang, Qiuhong
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=author): author
              • citedResponsibleParty (xlink:href=http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9414-7019)
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • individualName
                    • CharacterString: Tian, Fuqiang
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=author): author
              • citedResponsibleParty (xlink:href=http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5862-6338)
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • individualName
                    • CharacterString: Tokarczyk, Tamara
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: Institute of Meteorology and Water Management National Research Institute, Warszawa, Poland
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=author): author
              • citedResponsibleParty (xlink:href=http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8256-9174)
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • individualName
                    • CharacterString: Tovar, Carolina
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: Royal Botanical Gardens Kew, Surrey, UK
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=author): author
              • citedResponsibleParty (xlink:href=http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1187-3520)
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • individualName
                    • CharacterString: Tran, Thi Van Thu
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: Institute for Environment and Resources, Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh City (VNU-HCM), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=author): author
              • citedResponsibleParty (xlink:href=http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9781-6852)
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • individualName
                    • CharacterString: van Huijgevoort, Marjolein H.J.
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: KWR Water Research Institute, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=author): author
              • citedResponsibleParty (xlink:href=http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2597-8422)
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • individualName
                    • CharacterString: van Vliet, Michelle T.H.
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=author): author
              • citedResponsibleParty (xlink:href=http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4639-7982)
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • individualName
                    • CharacterString: Vorogushyn, Sergiy
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Section Hydrology, Potsdam, Germany
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=author): author
              • citedResponsibleParty (xlink:href=http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3881-5849)
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • individualName
                    • CharacterString: Wagener, Thorsten
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: University of Potsdam, Institute of Environmental Science and Geography, Potsdam, Germany
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=author): author
              • citedResponsibleParty (xlink:href=http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2773-2108)
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • individualName
                    • CharacterString: Wang, Yueling
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=author): author
              • citedResponsibleParty (xlink:href=http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2315-7871)
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • individualName
                    • CharacterString: Wendt, Doris E.
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: Civil Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=author): author
              • citedResponsibleParty (xlink:href=http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7890-0920)
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • individualName
                    • CharacterString: Wickham, Elliot
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, US
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=author): author
              • citedResponsibleParty (xlink:href=http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1872-0175 )
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • individualName
                    • CharacterString: Yang, Long
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: School of Geography and Ocean Science, Nanjing University, China
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=author): author
              • citedResponsibleParty (xlink:href=http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9536-643X)
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • individualName
                    • CharacterString: Zambrano-Bigiarini, Mauricio
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=author): author
              • citedResponsibleParty (xlink:href=http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7702-7859)
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • individualName
                    • CharacterString: Ward, Philip J.
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=author): author
              • citedResponsibleParty
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: GFZ Data Services
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=publisher): publisher
          • abstract
            • CharacterString: As the negative impacts of hydrological extremes increase in large parts of the world, a better understanding of the drivers of change in risk and impacts is essential for effective flood and drought risk management and climate adaptation. However, there is a lack of comprehensive, empirical data about the processes, interactions and feedbacks in complex human-water systems leading to flood and drought impacts. To fill this gap, we present an IAHS Panta Rhei benchmark dataset containing socio-hydrological data of paired events, i.e. two floods or two droughts that occurred in the same area (Kreibich et al. 2017, 2019). The contained 45 paired events occurred in 42 different study areas (in three study areas we have data on two paired events), which cover different socioeconomic and hydroclimatic contexts across all continents. The dataset is unique in covering floods and droughts, in the number of cases assessed and in the amount of qualitative and quantitative socio-hydrological data contained. References to the data sources are provided in 2022-002_Kreibich-et-al_Key_data_table.xlsx where possible. Based on templates, we collected detailed, review-style reports describing the event characteristics and processes in the case study areas, as well as various semi-quantitative data, categorised into management, hazard, exposure, vulnerability and impacts. Sources of the data were classified as follows: scientific study (peer-reviewed paper and PhD thesis), report (by governments, administrations, NGOs, research organisations, projects), own analysis by authors, based on a database (e.g. official statistics, monitoring data such as weather, discharge data, etc.), newspaper article, and expert judgement. The campaign to collect the information and data on paired events started at the EGU General Assembly in April 2019 in Vienna and was continued with talks promoting the paired event data collection at various conferences. Communication with the Panta Rhei community and other flood and drought experts identified through snowballing techniques was important. Thus, data on paired events were provided by professionals with excellent local knowledge of the events and risk management practices.
          • pointOfContact
            • CI_ResponsibleParty
              • individualName
                • CharacterString: Kreibich, Heidi
              • organisationName
                • CharacterString: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences
              • positionName
                • CharacterString: Head of WG Flood risk and climate adaptation
              • contactInfo
                • CI_Contact
                  • address
                    • CI_Address
                      • electronicMailAddress
                        • CharacterString: heidi.kreibich(_at_)gfz-potsdam.de
                  • onlineResource
                    • CI_OnlineResource
                      • linkage
                        • URL: https://www.gfz-potsdam.de/en/staff/heidi.kreibich
                      • function
                        • CI_OnLineFunctionCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_OnLineFunctionCode codeListValue=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_OnLineFunctionCode_information): informtion
              • role
                • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=pointOfContact): pointOfContact
          • descriptiveKeywords
            • MD_Keywords
              • keyword
                • CharacterString: hydrological extremes
              • keyword
                • CharacterString: risk dynamics
              • keyword
                • CharacterString: human-flood system
              • keyword
                • CharacterString: human-drought system
              • keyword
                • CharacterString: socio-hydrology
              • keyword
                • CharacterString: risk management
              • keyword
                • CharacterString: flood
              • keyword
                • CharacterString: drought
          • descriptiveKeywords
            • MD_Keywords
              • keyword
                • CharacterString: EARTH SCIENCE > HUMAN DIMENSIONS > ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE/MANAGEMENT > WATER MANAGEMENT
              • keyword
                • CharacterString: EARTH SCIENCE > HUMAN DIMENSIONS > NATURAL HAZARDS > DROUGHTS
              • keyword
                • CharacterString: EARTH SCIENCE > HUMAN DIMENSIONS > NATURAL HAZARDS > FLOODS
              • keyword
                • CharacterString: EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES > DATA ANALYSIS AND VISUALIZATION
              • thesaurusName
                • CI_Citation
                  • title
                    • CharacterString: NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords
                  • date
                    • CI_Date
                      • date (gco:nilReason=missing): 
                      • dateType
                        • CI_DateTypeCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_DateTypeCode codeListValue=publication): publication
          • descriptiveKeywords
            • MD_Keywords
              • keyword
                • CharacterString: environmental assessment > environmental risk assessment
              • thesaurusName
                • CI_Citation
                  • title
                    • CharacterString: GEMET - INSPIRE themes, version 1.0
                  • date
                    • CI_Date
                      • date (gco:nilReason=missing): 
                      • dateType
                        • CI_DateTypeCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_DateTypeCode codeListValue=publication): publication
          • resourceConstraints (xlink:href=http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
            • MD_Constraints
              • useLimitation
                • CharacterString: CC BY 4.0
          • resourceConstraints
            • MD_LegalConstraints
              • accessConstraints
                • MD_RestrictionCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/codeList.xml#MD_RestrictionCode codeListValue=otherRestrictions): 
              • otherConstraints
                • CharacterString: CC BY 4.0
          • resourceConstraints
            • MD_SecurityConstraints
              • classification
                • MD_ClassificationCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/codeList.xml#MD_ClassificationCode codeListValue=unclassified): 
          • aggregationInfo
            • MD_AggregateInformation
              • aggregateDataSetIdentifier
                • RS_Identifier
                  • code
                    • CharacterString: DOI of paper when available
                  • codeSpace
                    • CharacterString: DOI
              • associationType
                • DS_AssociationTypeCode (codeList=http://datacite.org/schema/kernel-4 codeListValue=IsSupplementTo): IsSupplementTo
          • aggregationInfo
            • MD_AggregateInformation
              • aggregateDataSetIdentifier
                • RS_Identifier
                  • code
                    • CharacterString: 10.1080/02626667.2018.1558367
                  • codeSpace
                    • CharacterString: DOI
              • associationType
                • DS_AssociationTypeCode (codeList=http://datacite.org/schema/kernel-4 codeListValue=Cites): Cites
          • aggregationInfo
            • MD_AggregateInformation
              • aggregateDataSetIdentifier
                • RS_Identifier
                  • code
                    • CharacterString: 10.1002/2017EF000606
                  • codeSpace
                    • CharacterString: DOI
              • associationType
                • DS_AssociationTypeCode (codeList=http://datacite.org/schema/kernel-4 codeListValue=Cites): Cites
          • language
            • CharacterString: eng
          • characterSet
            • MD_CharacterSetCode (codeListValue=utf8 codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/codeList.xml#MD_CharacterSetCode): 
          • topicCategory
            • MD_TopicCategoryCode: geoscientificInformation
          • extent
            • EX_Extent
              • geographicElement
                • EX_GeographicBoundingBox
                  • westBoundLongitude
                    • Decimal: -138.75
                  • eastBoundLongitude
                    • Decimal: 163.594
                  • southBoundLatitude
                    • Decimal: -55.2457
                  • northBoundLatitude
                    • Decimal: 70.9214
      • distributionInfo
        • MD_Distribution
          • transferOptions
            • MD_DigitalTransferOptions
              • onLine
                • CI_OnlineResource
                  • linkage
                    • URL: http://doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.4.4.2022.002
                  • protocol
                    • CharacterString: WWW:LINK-1.0-http--link
                  • name
                    • CharacterString: Data Access - DOI
                  • description
                    • CharacterString: Data Access - DOI
                  • function
                    • CI_OnLineFunctionCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_OnLineFunctionCode codeListValue=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_OnLineFunctionCode_information): information
      • dataQualityInfo
        • DQ_DataQuality
          • scope
            • DQ_Scope
              • level
                • MD_ScopeCode (codeListValue=dataset codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/codeList.xml#MD_ScopeCode): 

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    License: CC BY 4.0

    Dataset Description

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