GFZ Data Services

Released
Dataset

Earthquake catalogs related to "Analysis of microseismicity framing M >2.5 earthquakes at The Geysers geothermal field, California"

Cite as:

Bentz, Stephan; Martínez-Garzón, Patricia; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Dresen, Georg; Bohnhoff, Marco (2019): Earthquake catalogs related to "Analysis of microseismicity framing M >2.5 earthquakes at The Geysers geothermal field, California". GFZ Data Services. http://doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.4.2.2019.002

Status

I   N       R   E   V   I   E   W : Bentz, Stephan; Martínez-Garzón, Patricia; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Dresen, Georg; Bohnhoff, Marco (2019): Earthquake catalogs related to "Analysis of microseismicity framing M >2.5 earthquakes at The Geysers geothermal field, California". GFZ Data Services. http://doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.4.2.2019.002

Abstract

Preparatory mechanisms accompanying or leading to nucleation of larger earthquakes have been observed at both laboratory and field scale, but the precise conditions favoring extended nucleation processes are still largely unknown. In particular, it remains a matter of debate why earthquakes often occur spontaneously without noticeable precursors as opposed to an extended failure process accompanied by foreshocks. In this study, we have generated new high-resolution seismicity catalogs framing the occurrence of 20 ML > 2.5 earthquakes at The Geysers geothermal field in California.

To this end, a seismicity catalog of the 11 days framing each large event was created. We selected 20 sequences in total from different tectonic settings within the field that sample the entire reservoir depth range and temporal periods with high or low injection rates.

Seismic activity and magnitude frequency distributions displayed by the different earthquake sequences are correlated with their location within the reservoir. Sequences located in the northwestern part of the reservoir show overall increased seismic activity and low b-values, while the southeastern part is dominated by decreased seismic activity and higher b-values. Periods of high injection coincide with high b-values, and vice versa. These observations potentially reflect differential stresses and damage varying across the field. About 50 % of analyzed sequences exhibit no change in seismicity rate in response to the large main event. Instead, we find complex waveforms at the onset of the main earthquake, suggesting that small ruptures spontaneously grow into or trigger larger events.

Technical Information

Earthquake catalogs belonging to each of the 20 mainshock sequences.


The catalogue is provided in tabular form (ASCII). The file names indate the NCEDC ID of the EQ Sequence mainshock (NCEDC = Northern California earthquake datacenter, Enhanced Geothermal Systems Earthquake Catalog, https://ncedc.org/egs/catalog-search.html).

Definition of columns in the data tables (also in the header of the data):

- X,Y are in local cartesian coordinates (m) [unlocated events are indicated by NaN]
- Z (m) is in depth, negative values point downwards
- Coordinate origin in Lat;Lon: 38.8042;-122.7822
- dt refers to matlab serial time (i.e. the number of days from January 0, 0000, fractions of days are given as decimal digits)
- Ml is local magnitude

Contact

  • Bentz, Stephan; GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany;

Keywords

Earthquake catalog

GCMD Science Keywords

More Metadata

  • iso19115:  /  download xml
    • MD_Metadata (xsi:schemaLocation=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd/gmd.xsd)
      • fileIdentifier
        • CharacterString: doi:10.5880/GFZ.4.2.2019.002
      • language
        • LanguageCode (codeList=http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/ codeListValue=eng): eng
      • characterSet
        • MD_CharacterSetCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/codeList.xml#MD_CharacterSetCode codeListValue=utf8): 
      • hierarchyLevel
        • MD_ScopeCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_ScopeCode codeListValue=): 
      • hierarchyLevelName
        • CharacterString: 
      • contact
        • CI_ResponsibleParty
          • organisationName
            • CharacterString: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences
          • contactInfo
            • CI_Contact
              • address
                • CI_Address
                  • electronicMailAddress
                    • CharacterString: 
              • onlineResource
                • CI_OnlineResource
                  • linkage
                    • URL: http://www.gfz-potsdam.de/
                  • function
                    • CI_OnLineFunctionCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_OnLineFunctionCode codeListValue=information): information
          • role
            • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=pointOfContact): pointOfContact
      • dateStamp
        • Date: 2019-08-13
      • referenceSystemInfo
        • MD_ReferenceSystem
          • referenceSystemIdentifier
            • RS_Identifier
              • code
                • CharacterString: urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG:4326
      • identificationInfo
        • MD_DataIdentification
          • citation
            • CI_Citation
              • title
                • CharacterString: Earthquake catalogs related to "Analysis of microseismicity framing M >2.5 earthquakes at The Geysers geothermal field, California"
              • date
                • CI_Date
                  • date
                    • Date: 2019-08-13
                  • dateType
                    • CI_DateTypeCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_DateTypeCode codeListValue=revision): revision
              • identifier
                • MD_Identifier
                  • code
                    • CharacterString: doi:10.5880/GFZ.4.2.2019.002
              • citedResponsibleParty (xlink:href=http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3694-0443)
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • individualName
                    • CharacterString: Bentz, Stephan
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode_author): author
              • citedResponsibleParty (xlink:href=http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4649-0386)
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • individualName
                    • CharacterString: Martínez-Garzón, Patricia
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode_author): author
              • citedResponsibleParty (xlink:href=http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1076-615X)
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • individualName
                    • CharacterString: Kwiatek, Grzegorz
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode_author): author
              • citedResponsibleParty (xlink:href=http://orcid.org/6701789946)
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • individualName
                    • CharacterString: Dresen, Georg
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode_author): author
              • citedResponsibleParty (xlink:href=http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7383-635X)
                • CI_ResponsibleParty
                  • individualName
                    • CharacterString: Bohnhoff, Marco
                  • organisationName
                    • CharacterString: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany
                  • role
                    • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode_author): author
          • abstract
            • CharacterString: Preparatory mechanisms accompanying or leading to nucleation of larger earthquakes have been observed at both laboratory and field scale, but the precise conditions favoring extended nucleation processes are still largely unknown. In particular, it remains a matter of debate why earthquakes often occur spontaneously without noticeable precursors as opposed to an extended failure process accompanied by foreshocks. In this study, we have generated new high-resolution seismicity catalogs framing the occurrence of 20 ML > 2.5 earthquakes at The Geysers geothermal field in California. To this end, a seismicity catalog of the 11 days framing each large event was created. We selected 20 sequences in total from different tectonic settings within the field that sample the entire reservoir depth range and temporal periods with high or low injection rates. Seismic activity and magnitude frequency distributions displayed by the different earthquake sequences are correlated with their location within the reservoir. Sequences located in the northwestern part of the reservoir show overall increased seismic activity and low b-values, while the southeastern part is dominated by decreased seismic activity and higher b-values. Periods of high injection coincide with high b-values, and vice versa. These observations potentially reflect differential stresses and damage varying across the field. About 50 % of analyzed sequences exhibit no change in seismicity rate in response to the large main event. Instead, we find complex waveforms at the onset of the main earthquake, suggesting that small ruptures spontaneously grow into or trigger larger events. Earthquake catalogs belonging to each of the 20 mainshock sequences. The catalogue is provided in tabular form (ASCII). The file names indate the NCEDC ID of the EQ Sequence mainshock (NCEDC = Northern California earthquake datacenter, Enhanced Geothermal Systems Earthquake Catalog, https://ncedc.org/egs/catalog-search.html). Definition of columns in the data tables (also in the header of the data): - X,Y are in local cartesian coordinates (m) [unlocated events are indicated by NaN] - Z (m) is in depth, negative values point downwards - Coordinate origin in Lat;Lon: 38.8042;-122.7822 - dt refers to matlab serial time (i.e. the number of days from January 0, 0000, fractions of days are given as decimal digits) - Ml is local magnitude
          • status
            • MD_ProgressCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_ProgressCode codeListValue=Complete): Complete
          • pointOfContact
            • CI_ResponsibleParty
              • individualName
                • CharacterString: Bentz, Stephan
              • organisationName
                • CharacterString: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany
              • contactInfo
                • CI_Contact
                  • address
                    • CI_Address
                      • electronicMailAddress
                        • CharacterString: bentz(_at_)gfz-potsdam.de
              • role
                • CI_RoleCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode codeListValue=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode_pointOfContact): pointOfContact
          • descriptiveKeywords
            • MD_Keywords
              • keyword
                • CharacterString: Earthquake catalog
          • descriptiveKeywords
            • MD_Keywords
              • keyword
                • CharacterString: EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > EARTHQUAKES
              • keyword
                • CharacterString: EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > EARTHQUAKES > EARTHQUAKE OCCURRENCES
              • keyword
                • CharacterString: EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > EARTHQUAKES > EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE/INTENSITY
              • thesaurusName
                • CI_Citation
                  • title
                    • CharacterString: NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords
                  • date
                    • CI_Date
                      • date (gco:nilReason=missing): 
                      • dateType
                        • CI_DateTypeCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_DateTypeCode codeListValue=publication): publication
          • resourceConstraints (xlink:href=http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
            • MD_Constraints
              • useLimitation
                • CharacterString: CC BY 4.0
          • resourceConstraints
            • MD_LegalConstraints
              • accessConstraints
                • MD_RestrictionCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/codeList.xml#MD_RestrictionCode codeListValue=otherRestrictions): 
              • otherConstraints
                • CharacterString: CC BY 4.0
          • resourceConstraints
            • MD_SecurityConstraints
              • classification
                • MD_ClassificationCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/codeList.xml#MD_ClassificationCode codeListValue=unclassified): 
          • aggregationInfo
            • MD_AggregateInformation
              • aggregateDataSetIdentifier
                • RS_Identifier
                  • code
                    • CharacterString: 10.1029/2019JB017716
                  • codeSpace
                    • CharacterString: DOI
              • associationType
                • DS_AssociationTypeCode (codeList=http://datacite.org/schema/kernel-4 codeListValue=IsSupplementTo): IsSupplementTo
          • aggregationInfo
            • MD_AggregateInformation
              • aggregateDataSetIdentifier
                • RS_Identifier
                  • code
                    • CharacterString: https://ncedc.org/egs/catalog-search.html
                  • codeSpace
                    • CharacterString: URL
              • associationType
                • DS_AssociationTypeCode (codeList=http://datacite.org/schema/kernel-4 codeListValue=References): References
          • language
            • CharacterString: eng
          • extent
            • EX_Extent
              • geographicElement
                • EX_GeographicBoundingBox
                  • westBoundLongitude
                    • Decimal: -122.7822
                  • eastBoundLongitude
                    • Decimal: -122.7822
                  • southBoundLatitude
                    • Decimal: 38.8042
                  • northBoundLatitude
                    • Decimal: 38.8042
      • distributionInfo
        • MD_Distribution
          • transferOptions
            • MD_DigitalTransferOptions
              • onLine
                • CI_OnlineResource
                  • linkage
                    • URL: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.5880/GFZ.4.2.2019.002
                  • protocol
                    • CharacterString: WWW:LINK-1.0-http--link
                  • name
                    • CharacterString: Download
                  • description
                    • CharacterString: Download
                  • function
                    • CI_OnLineFunctionCode (codeList=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_OnLineFunctionCode codeListValue=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_OnLineFunctionCode_download): download
  • datacite:  /  download xml
    • resource (xsi:schemaLocation=http://datacite.org/schema/kernel-4 http://schema.datacite.org/meta/kernel-4/metadata.xsd)
      • identifier (identifierType=DOI): 10.5880/GFZ.4.2.2019.002
      • creators
        • creator
          • creatorName: Bentz, Stephan
          • givenName: Stephan
          • familyName: Bentz
          • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ORCID): 0000-0003-3694-0443
          • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany
        • creator
          • creatorName: Martínez-Garzón, Patricia
          • givenName: Patricia
          • familyName: Martínez-Garzón
          • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ORCID): 0000-0003-4649-0386
          • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany
        • creator
          • creatorName: Kwiatek, Grzegorz
          • givenName: Grzegorz
          • familyName: Kwiatek
          • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ORCID): 0000-0003-1076-615X
          • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany
        • creator
          • creatorName: Dresen, Georg
          • givenName: Georg
          • familyName: Dresen
          • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ORCID): 6701789946
          • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany
        • creator
          • creatorName: Bohnhoff, Marco
          • givenName: Marco
          • familyName: Bohnhoff
          • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ORCID): 0000-0001-7383-635X
          • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany
      • titles
        • title (xml:lang=eng): Earthquake catalogs related to "Analysis of microseismicity framing M >2.5 earthquakes at The Geysers geothermal field, California"
      • publisher: GFZ Data Services
      • publicationYear: 2019
      • subjects
        • subject: Earthquake catalog
        • subject (schemeURI=http://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concepts/concept_scheme/sciencekeywords subjectScheme=NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords xml:lang=en): EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > EARTHQUAKES
        • subject (schemeURI=http://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concepts/concept_scheme/sciencekeywords subjectScheme=NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords xml:lang=en): EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > EARTHQUAKES > EARTHQUAKE OCCURRENCES
        • subject (schemeURI=http://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concepts/concept_scheme/sciencekeywords subjectScheme=NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords xml:lang=en): EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > EARTHQUAKES > EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE/INTENSITY
      • language: eng
      • resourceType (resourceTypeGeneral=Dataset): 
      • relatedIdentifiers
        • relatedIdentifier (relatedIdentifierType=DOI relationType=IsSupplementTo): 10.1029/2019JB017716
        • relatedIdentifier (relatedIdentifierType=URL relationType=References): https://ncedc.org/egs/catalog-search.html
      • sizes
        • size: 1 Files
      • formats
        • format: application/octet-stream
      • rightsList
        • rights (rightsURI=http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/): CC BY 4.0
      • descriptions
        • description (descriptionType=Abstract)
          • br: 
          • br: 
          • br: 
          • br: 
        • description (descriptionType=TechnicalInfo)
          • br: 
          • br: 
          • br: 
          • br: 
          • br: 
          • br: 
          • br: 
          • br: 
          • br: 
          • br: 
          • br: 
      • geoLocations
        • geoLocation
          • geoLocationPoint
            • pointLongitude: -122.7822
            • pointLatitude: 38.8042
  • dif:  /  download xml
    • DIF (xsi:schemaLocation=http://gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aboutus/xml/dif/ http://gcmd.nasa.gov/Aboutus/xml/dif/dif_v9.8.2.xsd)
      • Entry_ID: 10.5880/GFZ.4.2.2019.002
      • Entry_Title: Earthquake catalogs related to "Analysis of microseismicity framing M >2.5 earthquakes at The Geysers geothermal field, California"
      • Data_Set_Citation
        • Dataset_Creator: Bentz, Stephan; Martínez-Garzón, Patricia; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Dresen, Georg; Bohnhoff, Marco
        • Dataset_Title: Earthquake catalogs related to "Analysis of microseismicity framing M >2.5 earthquakes at The Geysers geothermal field, California"
        • Dataset_Release_Date: 2019
        • Dataset_Release_Place: Potsdam, Germany
        • Dataset_Publisher: GFZ Data Services
        • Online_Resource: http://dx.doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.4.2.2019.002
      • Parameters
        • Category: EARTH SCIENCE
        • Topic: SOLID EARTH
        • Term: TECTONICS
        • Variable_Level_1: EARTHQUAKES
      • Parameters
        • Category: EARTH SCIENCE
        • Topic: SOLID EARTH
        • Term: TECTONICS
        • Variable_Level_1: EARTHQUAKES
        • Variable_Level_2: EARTHQUAKE OCCURRENCES
      • Parameters
        • Category: EARTH SCIENCE
        • Topic: SOLID EARTH
        • Term: TECTONICS
        • Variable_Level_1: EARTHQUAKES
        • Variable_Level_2: EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE/INTENSITY
      • ISO_Topic_Category: geoscientificInformation
      • Keyword: Earthquake catalog
      • Spatial_Coverage
        • Southernmost_Latitude: 38.8042
        • Northernmost_Latitude: 38.8042
        • Westernmost_Longitude: -122.7822
        • Easternmost_Longitude: -122.7822
      • Data_Center
        • Data_Center_Name
          • Short_Name: Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
          • Long_Name: GFZ
        • Personnel
          • Role: DATA CENTER CONTACT
          • Last_Name: Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
      • Summary
        • Abstract: Preparatory mechanisms accompanying or leading to nucleation of larger earthquakes have been observed at both laboratory and field scale, but the precise conditions favoring extended nucleation processes are still largely unknown. In particular, it remains a matter of debate why earthquakes often occur spontaneously without noticeable precursors as opposed to an extended failure process accompanied by foreshocks. In this study, we have generated new high-resolution seismicity catalogs framing the occurrence of 20 ML > 2.5 earthquakes at The Geysers geothermal field in California. To this end, a seismicity catalog of the 11 days framing each large event was created. We selected 20 sequences in total from different tectonic settings within the field that sample the entire reservoir depth range and temporal periods with high or low injection rates. Seismic activity and magnitude frequency distributions displayed by the different earthquake sequences are correlated with their location within the reservoir. Sequences located in the northwestern part of the reservoir show overall increased seismic activity and low b-values, while the southeastern part is dominated by decreased seismic activity and higher b-values. Periods of high injection coincide with high b-values, and vice versa. These observations potentially reflect differential stresses and damage varying across the field. About 50 % of analyzed sequences exhibit no change in seismicity rate in response to the large main event. Instead, we find complex waveforms at the onset of the main earthquake, suggesting that small ruptures spontaneously grow into or trigger larger events.
      • Metadata_Name: DIF
      • Metadata_Version: 9.8.2
  • escidoc:  /  download xml
    • resource
      • title (xml:lang=eng): Earthquake catalogs related to "Analysis of microseismicity framing M >2.5 earthquakes at The Geysers geothermal field, California"
      • creator
        • creatorName: Bentz, Stephan
        • givenName: Stephan
        • familyName: Bentz
        • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ORCID): 0000-0003-3694-0443
        • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany
      • creator
        • creatorName: Martínez-Garzón, Patricia
        • givenName: Patricia
        • familyName: Martínez-Garzón
        • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ORCID): 0000-0003-4649-0386
        • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany
      • creator
        • creatorName: Kwiatek, Grzegorz
        • givenName: Grzegorz
        • familyName: Kwiatek
        • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ORCID): 0000-0003-1076-615X
        • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany
      • creator
        • creatorName: Dresen, Georg
        • givenName: Georg
        • familyName: Dresen
        • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ORCID): 6701789946
        • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany
      • creator
        • creatorName: Bohnhoff, Marco
        • givenName: Marco
        • familyName: Bohnhoff
        • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ORCID): 0000-0001-7383-635X
        • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany

Location

Click/hover over markers or bounding boxes to see related details. Click/hover over details to see related marker or bounding box.

    Files

    License

    CC BY 4.0

    Dataset Description

    Supplement to