GFZ Data Services

Released
Dataset

Source parameters of relocated earthquakes recorded during hydraulic stimulation within St1 Deep Heat project in Espoo, Finland

Cite as:

Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Saarno, Tero; Ader, Thomas; Bluemle, Felix; Bohnhoff, Marco; Chendorain, Michael; Dresen, Georg; Heikkinen, Pekka; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Leary, Peter; Leonhardt, Maria; Malin, Peter; Martinez-Garzon, Patricia; Passmore, Kevin; Passmore, Paul; Valenzuela, Sergio; Wollin, Christopher (2019): Source parameters of relocated earthquakes recorded during hydraulic stimulation within St1 Deep Heat project in Espoo, Finland. V. 1.0. GFZ Data Services. http://doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.4.2.2019.001

Status

I   N       R   E   V   I   E   W : Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Saarno, Tero; Ader, Thomas; Bluemle, Felix; Bohnhoff, Marco; Chendorain, Michael; Dresen, Georg; Heikkinen, Pekka; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Leary, Peter; Leonhardt, Maria; Malin, Peter; Martinez-Garzon, Patricia; Passmore, Kevin; Passmore, Paul; Valenzuela, Sergio; Wollin, Christopher (2019): Source parameters of relocated earthquakes recorded during hydraulic stimulation within St1 Deep Heat project in Espoo, Finland. V. 1.0. GFZ Data Services. http://doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.4.2.2019.001

Abstract

The dataset is supplementary material to Kwiatek et al. (2019, Science Advances).

The dataset is a refined seismic catalog acquired during the hydraulic stimulation of the future geothermal sites located in Espoo, Finland. There, the injection well, OTN-3, was drilled down to 6.1 km-depth into Precambrian crystalline rocks. Well OTN-3 was deviated 45° from vertical and an open hole section at the bottom was divided into several injection intervals. A total of 18,159 m3 of fresh water was pumped into crystal-line rocks during 49 days in June- and July, 2018. The stimulation was monitored in near-real time using (1) a 12-level seismometer array at 2.20-2.65 km depth in an observation well located ~10 m from OTN3 and (2) a 12-station network installed in 0.3-1.15 km deep bore-holes surrounding the project site. On completion of stimulation it the catalog contained 8452 event detections overall, and 6152 confirmed earthquakes located in the vicinity of the project site (epicentral distance from the well head of OTN-3 <5 km). These were recorded in a time period lasting 59 days: 49 days of active stimulation campaign and the 10 days following completion.

The initial industrial seismic catalog of 6150 earthquakes was manually reprocessed. The P- and S-wave arrivals of larger seismic events with M>0.5 were all manually verified, and, if necessary, refined. Earthquakes with sufficient number of phases and seemingly anomalous hypocenter depths (e.g. very shallow or very deep) were manually revised as well. The hypocenter locations were calculated using the Equivalent differential time method and optimized with an Adaptive Simulated Annealing algorithm. The updated catalog contained 4,580 earthquakes that occurred at hypocenter depths 4.5-7.0 km, in the vicinity of the stimulation section of OTN-3. To increase the precision of their locations, the selected 2155 earthquakes with at least 10 P-wave and 4 S-wave picks were relocated using the double-difference relocation technique. The relocation uncertainties were estimated using bootstrap resampling technique. The relocation reduced the relative precision of hypocenter determination to approx. 66 m and 27 m for 95% and 68% of relocated earthquakes. The final relocated catalog that constitutes the here published contained 1,977 earthquakes (91% of the originally selected events).

Contact

Keywords

induced seismicity, earthquake hypocenters, magnitude, enhanced geothermal systems

GCMD Science Keywords

More Metadata

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          • givenName: Christopher
          • familyName: Wollin
          • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ORCID): 0000-0002-3992-787X
          • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany
      • titles
        • title (xml:lang=en): Source parameters of relocated earthquakes recorded during hydraulic stimulation within St1 Deep Heat project in Espoo, Finland
      • publisher: GFZ Data Services
      • publicationYear: 2019
      • subjects
        • subject: induced seismicity
        • subject: earthquake hypocenters
        • subject: magnitude
        • subject: enhanced geothermal systems
        • subject (schemeURI=http://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concepts/concept_scheme/sciencekeywords subjectScheme=NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords xml:lang=en): EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > EARTHQUAKES > SEISMIC PROFILE > SEISMIC BODY WAVES
        • subject (schemeURI=http://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concepts/concept_scheme/sciencekeywords subjectScheme=NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords xml:lang=en): EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > EARTHQUAKES > EARTHQUAKE OCCURRENCES
        • subject (schemeURI=http://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concepts/concept_scheme/sciencekeywords subjectScheme=NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords xml:lang=en): EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > EARTHQUAKES > EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE/INTENSITY
      • contributors
        • contributor (contributorType=ContactPerson)
          • contributorName: Kwiatek, Grzegorz
          • givenName: Grzegorz
          • familyName: Kwiatek
          • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ORCID): 0000-0003-1076-615X
          • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany; Free University, Berlin, Germany
        • contributor (contributorType=DataManager)
          • contributorName: Kwiatek, Grzegorz
          • givenName: Grzegorz
          • familyName: Kwiatek
          • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ORCID): 0000-0003-1076-615X
          • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany; Free University, Berlin, Germany
        • contributor (contributorType=DataCurator)
          • contributorName: Kwiatek, Grzegorz
          • givenName: Grzegorz
          • familyName: Kwiatek
          • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ORCID): 0000-0003-1076-615X
          • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany; Free University, Berlin, Germany
        • contributor (contributorType=ProjectManager)
          • contributorName: Saarno, Tero
          • givenName: Tero
          • familyName: Saarno
          • affiliation: St1 Deep Heat Oy, Helsinki, Finland
        • contributor (contributorType=DataCollector)
          • contributorName: Leary, Peter
          • givenName: Peter
          • familyName: Leary
          • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ScopusID): 7004933656
          • affiliation: ASIR Seismic, Carbondale, Colorado, United States
        • contributor (contributorType=DataCollector)
          • contributorName: Malin, Peter
          • givenName: Peter
          • familyName: Malin
          • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ScopusID): 7004503806
          • affiliation: ASIR Seismic, Carbondale, Colorado, United States
        • contributor (contributorType=DataCollector)
          • contributorName: Passmore, Kevin
          • givenName: Kevin
          • familyName: Passmore
          • affiliation: ASIR Seismic, Carbondale, Colorado, United States
        • contributor (contributorType=DataCollector)
          • contributorName: Passmore, Paul
          • givenName: Paul
          • familyName: Passmore
          • affiliation: ASIR Seismic, Carbondale, Colorado, United States
      • dates
        • date (dateType=Valid): 2018-06-04/2018-08-02
        • date (dateType=Created): 2019-01-31
        • date (dateType=Collected): 2018-06-04T09:00:00/2018-07-24T23:59:59
      • language: en
      • resourceType (resourceTypeGeneral=Dataset): 
      • relatedIdentifiers
        • relatedIdentifier (relatedIdentifierType=DOI relationType=References): 10.1016/0040-1951(96)00054-6
        • relatedIdentifier (relatedIdentifierType=DOI relationType=IsSupplementTo): 10.1126/sciadv.aav7224
      • sizes
        • size: 2 Files
      • formats
        • format: application/octet-stream
        • format: application/octet-stream
      • version: 1.0
      • rightsList
        • rights (rightsURI=http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/): CC BY-SA 4.0
      • descriptions
        • description (descriptionType=Abstract)
          • br: 
          • br: 
          • br: 
          • br: 
          • br: 
      • geoLocations
        • geoLocation
          • geoLocationBox
            • westBoundLongitude: 24.646064518019557
            • eastBoundLongitude: 25.048438785597682
            • southBoundLatitude: 60.13590068578315
            • northBoundLatitude: 60.28191359126646
          • geoLocationPlace: St1 Deep Heat project area
      • fundingReferences
        • fundingReference
          • funderName: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
          • funderIdentifier (funderIdentifierType=Other): http://doi.org/10.13039/501100001659
          • awardNumber: KW 84/4-1
          • awardTitle: Impact of seismic source processes on ground motion variability of induced earthquakes in geothermal reservoirs, mines and laboratory experiments
  • dif:  /  download xml
    • DIF (xsi:schemaLocation=http://gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aboutus/xml/dif/ http://gcmd.nasa.gov/Aboutus/xml/dif/dif_v9.8.2.xsd)
      • Entry_ID: 10.5880/GFZ.4.2.2019.001
      • Entry_Title: Source parameters of relocated earthquakes recorded during hydraulic stimulation within St1 Deep Heat project in Espoo, Finland
      • Data_Set_Citation
        • Dataset_Creator: Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Saarno, Tero; Ader, Thomas; Bluemle, Felix; Bohnhoff, Marco; Chendorain, Michael; Dresen, Georg; Heikkinen, Pekka; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Leary, Peter; Leonhardt, Maria; Malin, Peter; Martinez-Garzon, Patricia; Passmore, Kevin; Passmore, Paul; Valenzuela, Sergio; Wollin, Christopher
        • Dataset_Title: Source parameters of relocated earthquakes recorded during hydraulic stimulation within St1 Deep Heat project in Espoo, Finland
        • Dataset_Release_Date: 2019
        • Dataset_Release_Place: Potsdam, Germany
        • Dataset_Publisher: GFZ Data Services
        • Online_Resource: http://dx.doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.4.2.2019.001
      • Parameters
        • Category: EARTH SCIENCE
        • Topic: SOLID EARTH
        • Term: TECTONICS
        • Variable_Level_1: EARTHQUAKES
        • Variable_Level_2: SEISMIC PROFILE
        • Variable_Level_3: SEISMIC BODY WAVES
      • Parameters
        • Category: EARTH SCIENCE
        • Topic: SOLID EARTH
        • Term: TECTONICS
        • Variable_Level_1: EARTHQUAKES
        • Variable_Level_2: EARTHQUAKE OCCURRENCES
      • Parameters
        • Category: EARTH SCIENCE
        • Topic: SOLID EARTH
        • Term: TECTONICS
        • Variable_Level_1: EARTHQUAKES
        • Variable_Level_2: EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE/INTENSITY
      • ISO_Topic_Category: geoscientificInformation
      • Keyword: induced seismicity
      • Keyword: earthquake hypocenters
      • Keyword: magnitude
      • Keyword: enhanced geothermal systems
      • Spatial_Coverage
        • Southernmost_Latitude: 60.13590068578315
        • Northernmost_Latitude: 60.28191359126646
        • Westernmost_Longitude: 24.646064518019557
        • Easternmost_Longitude: 25.048438785597682
      • Data_Center
        • Data_Center_Name
          • Short_Name: Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
          • Long_Name: GFZ
        • Personnel
          • Role: DATA CENTER CONTACT
          • Last_Name: Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
      • Summary
        • Abstract: The dataset is supplementary material to Kwiatek et al. (2019, Science Advances). The dataset is a refined seismic catalog acquired during the hydraulic stimulation of the future geothermal sites located in Espoo, Finland. There, the injection well, OTN-3, was drilled down to 6.1 km-depth into Precambrian crystalline rocks. Well OTN-3 was deviated 45° from vertical and an open hole section at the bottom was divided into several injection intervals. A total of 18,159 m3 of fresh water was pumped into crystal-line rocks during 49 days in June- and July, 2018. The stimulation was monitored in near-real time using (1) a 12-level seismometer array at 2.20-2.65 km depth in an observation well located ~10 m from OTN3 and (2) a 12-station network installed in 0.3-1.15 km deep bore-holes surrounding the project site. On completion of stimulation it the catalog contained 8452 event detections overall, and 6152 confirmed earthquakes located in the vicinity of the project site (epicentral distance from the well head of OTN-3 <5 km). These were recorded in a time period lasting 59 days: 49 days of active stimulation campaign and the 10 days following completion. The initial industrial seismic catalog of 6150 earthquakes was manually reprocessed. The P- and S-wave arrivals of larger seismic events with M>0.5 were all manually verified, and, if necessary, refined. Earthquakes with sufficient number of phases and seemingly anomalous hypocenter depths (e.g. very shallow or very deep) were manually revised as well. The hypocenter locations were calculated using the Equivalent differential time method and optimized with an Adaptive Simulated Annealing algorithm. The updated catalog contained 4,580 earthquakes that occurred at hypocenter depths 4.5-7.0 km, in the vicinity of the stimulation section of OTN-3. To increase the precision of their locations, the selected 2155 earthquakes with at least 10 P-wave and 4 S-wave picks were relocated using the double-difference relocation technique. The relocation uncertainties were estimated using bootstrap resampling technique. The relocation reduced the relative precision of hypocenter determination to approx. 66 m and 27 m for 95% and 68% of relocated earthquakes. The final relocated catalog that constitutes the here published contained 1,977 earthquakes (91% of the originally selected events).
      • Metadata_Name: DIF
      • Metadata_Version: 9.8.2
  • escidoc:  /  download xml
    • resource
      • title (xml:lang=en): Source parameters of relocated earthquakes recorded during hydraulic stimulation within St1 Deep Heat project in Espoo, Finland
      • date (dateType=Valid): 2018-06-04/2018-08-02
      • date (dateType=Created): 2019-01-31
      • creator
        • creatorName: Kwiatek, Grzegorz
        • givenName: Grzegorz
        • familyName: Kwiatek
        • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ORCID): 0000-0003-1076-615X
        • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany; Free University, Berlin, Germany
      • creator
        • creatorName: Saarno, Tero
        • givenName: Tero
        • familyName: Saarno
        • affiliation: St1 Deep Heat Oy, Helsinki, Finland
      • creator
        • creatorName: Ader, Thomas
        • givenName: Thomas
        • familyName: Ader
        • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ScopusID): 55190984200
        • affiliation: ARUP Risk and Hazard Management Department, London, United Kingdom
      • creator
        • creatorName: Bluemle, Felix
        • givenName: Felix
        • familyName: Bluemle
        • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany
      • creator
        • creatorName: Bohnhoff, Marco
        • givenName: Marco
        • familyName: Bohnhoff
        • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ORCID): 0000-0001-7383-635X
        • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany; Free University, Berlin, Germany
      • creator
        • creatorName: Chendorain, Michael
        • givenName: Michael
        • familyName: Chendorain
        • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ScopusID): 6506009402
        • affiliation: ARUP, Risk and Hazard Management Department, London, United Kingdom
      • creator
        • creatorName: Dresen, Georg
        • givenName: Georg
        • familyName: Dresen
        • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ScopusID): 6701789946
        • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany; University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany
      • creator
        • creatorName: Heikkinen, Pekka
        • givenName: Pekka
        • familyName: Heikkinen
        • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ScopusID): 7003569185
        • affiliation: St1 Deep Heat Oy, Helsinki, Finland; University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
      • creator
        • creatorName: Kukkonen, Ilmo
        • givenName: Ilmo
        • familyName: Kukkonen
        • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ScopusID): 7003713931
        • affiliation: University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
      • creator
        • creatorName: Leary, Peter
        • givenName: Peter
        • familyName: Leary
        • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ScopusID): 7004933656
        • affiliation: ASIR Seismic, Carbondale, Colorado, United States
      • creator
        • creatorName: Leonhardt, Maria
        • givenName: Maria
        • familyName: Leonhardt
        • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ScopusID): 57194769372
        • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany
      • creator
        • creatorName: Malin, Peter
        • givenName: Peter
        • familyName: Malin
        • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ScopusID): 7004503806
        • affiliation: ASIR Seismic, Carbondale, Colorado, United States
      • creator
        • creatorName: Martinez-Garzon, Patricia
        • givenName: Patricia
        • familyName: Martinez-Garzon
        • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ORCID): 0000-0003-4649-0386
        • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany
      • creator
        • creatorName: Passmore, Kevin
        • givenName: Kevin
        • familyName: Passmore
        • affiliation: ASIR Seismic, Carbondale, Colorado, United States
      • creator
        • creatorName: Passmore, Paul
        • givenName: Paul
        • familyName: Passmore
        • affiliation: ASIR Seismic, Carbondale, Colorado, United States
      • creator
        • creatorName: Valenzuela, Sergio
        • givenName: Sergio
        • familyName: Valenzuela
        • affiliation: ASIR Seismic, Carbondale, Colorado, United States
      • creator
        • creatorName: Wollin, Christopher
        • givenName: Christopher
        • familyName: Wollin
        • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ORCID): 0000-0002-3992-787X
        • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany

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