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Supplementary material for analogue experiments on the interactions of two indenters, and their implications for curved fold-and-thrust-belts

Cite as:

Reiter, Karsten; Kukowski, Nina; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Rosenau, Matthias (2016): Supplementary material for analogue experiments on the interactions of two indenters, and their implications for curved fold-and-thrust-belts. GFZ Data Services. http://doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.4.1.2016.007

Status

I   N       R   E   V   I   E   W : Reiter, Karsten; Kukowski, Nina; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Rosenau, Matthias (2016): Supplementary material for analogue experiments on the interactions of two indenters, and their implications for curved fold-and-thrust-belts. GFZ Data Services. http://doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.4.1.2016.007

Abstract

This data publication includes animations and figures of eight scaled analogue models that are used to investigate the evolution of a curved mountain belt akin to the Pamir and Hindu Kush orogenic system and adjacent Tadjik basin. Crustal deformation is simulated by means of indentation of two basement blocks into a sedimentary sequence and the formation of a curved fold-and-thrust belt.
The experimental set-up has two adjacent rigid indenters representing the basement blocks moving in parallel with a velocity difference (Figure 1). The slow indenter moves with a relative velocity ranging from 40 to 80% of that of the fast one. A layer of quartz sand in front of the indenters, 1 by 1 meter in size and 1.5 cm thick, represents the sedimentary basin infill. A basal detachment layer is made up of low-friction glass beads or viscous silicone oil representing weak shale or evaporates layers, respectively. The surface evolution by means of topography and strain distribution is derived from 3-D particle image velocimetry (PIV). This allows visualizing and analysing the development of the model surface during the complete model run at high spatio-temporal resolution. All details about the model set-up, modelling results and interpretation can be found in Reiter et al. (2011).
The here provided additional material includes time-lapse movies showing the topographic evolution of the eight models. These visualizations are oblique views played back at 60-fold velocity for the “glass beads experiments” (gb40 to gb80) and 3600-fold velocity for the “silicone experiments” (si60, si-gb60).
In addition to the experiment movies we provide a set of figures. The figures include surface views as well as cross-sections through the finite models highlighting the link between topography and internal structure of the simulated curved fold-and-thrust belts. Additionally, attribute maps of distinct morphometric measures (curvature, slope) and deformation parameters (uplift, horizontal translation) for the experiments with glass beads detachments are given. Finally, the movie “Experimenting.avi” shows in time-lapse the whole workflow of setting up, conducting and documenting an experiment, which originally required three days (for experiment si-gb60).
An overview on the parameters used in the experimental series of the movie sequences is given in the explanatory file (Explanations_Reiter-et-al-2016.pdf). A full list of files is given in “list-of-files-Reiter-et-al-2016.pdf”.

Dataset Contact

Contributors

HelTec - Helmholtz Laboratory for Tectonic Modelling (GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Germany)

Keywords

two indenter tectonics, particle image velocimetry, fold-and-thrust belts, Tajik basin, Pamir, 4D analogue experiments, mountain building, continental collision, sandbox model, digital elevation model, analogue model, EPOS, multi-scale laboratories, analogue models of geologic processes, analogue modelling results, Microsphere > Glassy, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), Sand > Quartz Sand, Sandbox > Sandbox (cm scale), Sectioning, Silicon, Time lapse camera, crustal setting > upper continental crustal setting, detachment fault, mountain, oblique slip fault, reverse fault, tectonic and structural features, tectonic process > continental_collision, tectonically defined setting > collisional setting, tectonically defined setting > foreland setting, thrust fault, wrench fault

GCMD Science Keywords

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        • subject: particle image velocimetry
        • subject: fold-and-thrust belts
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        • subject: Pamir
        • subject: 4D analogue experiments
        • subject: mountain building
        • subject: continental collision
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        • subject: particle image velocimetry
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        • format: video/avi
        • format: application/pdf
        • format: video/x-msvideo
      • rightsList
        • rights (rightsURI=http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/): CC BY 4.0
      • descriptions
        • description (descriptionType=Abstract)
          • br: 
          • br: 
          • br: 
          • br: 
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      • geoLocations
        • geoLocation
          • geoLocationBox
            • westBoundLongitude: 67
            • eastBoundLongitude: 73
            • southBoundLatitude: 35
            • northBoundLatitude: 39
          • geoLocationPlace: Tajik Basin, Pamir
  • dif:  /  download xml
    • DIF (xsi:schemaLocation=http://gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aboutus/xml/dif/ http://gcmd.nasa.gov/Aboutus/xml/dif/dif_v9.8.2.xsd)
      • Entry_ID: 10.5880/GFZ.4.1.2016.007
      • Entry_Title: Supplementary material for analogue experiments on the interactions of two indenters, and their implications for curved fold-and-thrust-belts
      • Data_Set_Citation
        • Dataset_Creator: Reiter, Karsten; Kukowski, Nina; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Rosenau, Matthias
        • Dataset_Title: Supplementary material for analogue experiments on the interactions of two indenters, and their implications for curved fold-and-thrust-belts
        • Dataset_Release_Date: 2016
        • Dataset_Release_Place: Potsdam, Germany
        • Dataset_Publisher: GFZ Data Services
        • Online_Resource: http://dx.doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.4.1.2016.007
      • Parameters
        • Category: EARTH SCIENCE
        • Topic: SOLID EARTH
        • Term: TECTONICS
        • Variable_Level_1: PLATE TECTONICS
        • Variable_Level_2: FAULT MOVEMENT
      • Parameters
        • Category: EARTH SCIENCE
        • Topic: SOLID EARTH
        • Term: GEOMORPHIC LANDFORMS/PROCESSES
        • Variable_Level_1: TECTONIC PROCESSES
      • ISO_Topic_Category: geoscientificInformation
      • Keyword: two indenter tectonics
      • Keyword: particle image velocimetry
      • Keyword: fold-and-thrust belts
      • Keyword: Tajik basin
      • Keyword: Pamir
      • Keyword: 4D analogue experiments
      • Keyword: mountain building
      • Keyword: continental collision
      • Keyword: sandbox model
      • Keyword: digital elevation model
      • Keyword: analogue model
      • Keyword: particle image velocimetry
      • Keyword: EPOS
      • Keyword: multi-scale laboratories
      • Keyword: analogue models of geologic processes
      • Keyword: analogue modelling results
      • Spatial_Coverage
        • Southernmost_Latitude: 35
        • Northernmost_Latitude: 39
        • Westernmost_Longitude: 67
        • Easternmost_Longitude: 73
      • Data_Center
        • Data_Center_Name
          • Short_Name: Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
          • Long_Name: GFZ
        • Personnel
          • Role: DATA CENTER CONTACT
          • Last_Name: Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
      • Summary
        • Abstract: This data publication includes animations and figures of eight scaled analogue models that are used to investigate the evolution of a curved mountain belt akin to the Pamir and Hindu Kush orogenic system and adjacent Tadjik basin. Crustal deformation is simulated by means of indentation of two basement blocks into a sedimentary sequence and the formation of a curved fold-and-thrust belt. The experimental set-up has two adjacent rigid indenters representing the basement blocks moving in parallel with a velocity difference (Figure 1). The slow indenter moves with a relative velocity ranging from 40 to 80% of that of the fast one. A layer of quartz sand in front of the indenters, 1 by 1 meter in size and 1.5 cm thick, represents the sedimentary basin infill. A basal detachment layer is made up of low-friction glass beads or viscous silicone oil representing weak shale or evaporates layers, respectively. The surface evolution by means of topography and strain distribution is derived from 3-D particle image velocimetry (PIV). This allows visualizing and analysing the development of the model surface during the complete model run at high spatio-temporal resolution. All details about the model set-up, modelling results and interpretation can be found in Reiter et al. (2011). The here provided additional material includes time-lapse movies showing the topographic evolution of the eight models. These visualizations are oblique views played back at 60-fold velocity for the “glass beads experiments” (gb40 to gb80) and 3600-fold velocity for the “silicone experiments” (si60, si-gb60). In addition to the experiment movies we provide a set of figures. The figures include surface views as well as cross-sections through the finite models highlighting the link between topography and internal structure of the simulated curved fold-and-thrust belts. Additionally, attribute maps of distinct morphometric measures (curvature, slope) and deformation parameters (uplift, horizontal translation) for the experiments with glass beads detachments are given. Finally, the movie “Experimenting.avi” shows in time-lapse the whole workflow of setting up, conducting and documenting an experiment, which originally required three days (for experiment si-gb60). An overview on the parameters used in the experimental series of the movie sequences is given in the explanatory file (Explanations_Reiter-et-al-2016.pdf). A full list of files is given in “list-of-files-Reiter-et-al-2016.pdf”.
      • Metadata_Name: DIF
      • Metadata_Version: 9.8.2
  • escidoc:  /  download xml
    • resource
      • title (xml:lang=eng): Supplementary material for analogue experiments on the interactions of two indenters, and their implications for curved fold-and-thrust-belts
      • creator
        • creatorName: Reiter, Karsten
        • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ORCID): 0000-0003-4232-7426
        • affiliation: TU Darmstadt, Institut für Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Darmstadt, Germany
      • creator
        • creatorName: Kukowski, Nina
        • affiliation: Friedrich-Schiller Universität Jena, Institut für Geowissenschaften, Jena, Germany
      • creator
        • creatorName: Ratschbacher, Lothar
        • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ORCID): 0000-0001-9960-2084
        • affiliation: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut für Geologie, Freiberg, Germany
      • creator
        • creatorName: Rosenau, Matthias
        • nameIdentifier (nameIdentifierScheme=ORCID): 0000-0003-1134-5381
        • affiliation: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany

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    License: CC BY 4.0

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